Protracted displacements are the norm for the 1% of the word population who are refugees: the average length of displacement is 17 years. With life in exile unlikely to be temporary, education plays a key role in instilling a sense of ‘normalcy’, rebuilding communities, and enabling individuals to have a better future. It is essential to understand how war and displacement disrupt formal and non-formal learning opportunities because having strong cognitive, language, and literacy skills is critical to a wide range of outcomes throughout life. Educational resources have the potential to improve development and reduce inequity. In this panel, we propose to focus on how experiences in war and displacement impact the educational trajectories of both child and adult refugees. We will bring toge ..